Serum Media Wiki
The study of serum is serology. Serum is used in numerous diagnostic tests as well as blood typing. Measuring the concentration of various molecules can be useful for many applications, such as determining the therapeutic index of a drug candidate in a clinical trial.
Serum Media Wiki
The serum of convalescent patients successfully recovering (or already recovered) from an infectious disease can be used as a biopharmaceutical in the treatment of other people with that disease, because the antibodies generated by the successful recovery are potent fighters of the pathogen. Such convalescent serum (antiserum) is a form of immunotherapy.
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is rich in growth factors and is frequently added to growth media used for eukaryotic cell culture. A combination of FBS and the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor was originally used to maintain embryonic stem cells, but concerns about batch-to-batch variations in FBS have led to the development of serum substitutes.
Blood serum and plasma are some of the largest sources of biomarkers, whether for diagnostics or therapeutics. Its vast dynamic range, further complicated by the presence of lipids, salts, and post-translational modifications, as well multiple mechanisms of degradation, presents challenges in analytical reproducibility, sensitivity, resolution, and potential efficacy. For analysis of biomarkers in blood serum samples, it is possible to do a pre-separation by free-flow electrophoresis that usually consists of a depletion of serum albumin protein. This method enables greater penetration of the proteome via separation of a wide variety of charged or chargeable analytes, ranging from small molecules to cells.
Although all PromoCell media are optimized for use with primary human cells, we have received feedback from customers that this particular medium can also be used for rat and murine mammary epithelial cells as well as mamma carcinoma cell lines.
The Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial randomized 1,513 patients with non-insulin-dependent T2DM and nephropathy to losartan or placebo in addition to conventional antihypertensive therapy excluding ACE inhibitors. During a mean follow-up of 3.4 years, losartan was associated with a 25% reduction in the doubling of serum creatinine and 28% reduction in progression to ESRD compared to placebo. Treatment with losartan also resulted in a 35% reduction in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, whereas patients in the placebo group tended to have an increase in proteinuria. Although there were significant reductions in heart failure hospitalizations, there was no difference in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes.
Intermediate Serum is one of many Potions used in Potion Permit. It is not used to cure any illnesses, but is used to skip the Diagnosis mini-game for any symptom that can be cured by Second Level Potions.
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The Super Soldier Serum is a chemical solution originally created by Abraham Erskine. The serum was formulated to enhance the human body and mind, and was intended to be utilized by the United States Armed Forces during World War II in order to transform Allied soldiers into super soldiers.
In 1940, a prototype version of the serum was tested on Johann Schmidt, turning him into Red Skull in the process. However, the formula wasn't ready for use at the time, and the serum's effects affected Schmidt's personality drastically. Schmidt's transformation did not go as planned because his serum lacked radioactive exposure, causing the burning away of the skin and tissue surrounding his skull as well as leaving an unpleasant red scab on his nasal cavity.
After Abraham Erskine escaped to the United States of America, he joined the Strategic Scientific Reserve and perfected the serum. As a result, the SSR started Project Rebirth, an initiative to use the serum and transform Allied soldiers into super soldiers. Using Stark Industries injection tubes and Vita Radiation to unlock the serum's potential, Erskine successfully used the serum on Steve Rogers, curing his ailments and increasing his physicality. Unfortunately, Erskine was killed by Heinz Kruger who tried to steal the last vial of the serum but was stopped by Rogers. Knowing that the only hope to recreate Erskine's formula was locked in Rogers' genetic code, the U.S. government took blood from Rogers, as the last remnants of the serum remained in Rogers' DNA.
In October 1943, HYDRA captured numerous U.S. military soldiers and sent them to work at the top-secret weapons facility in the Austrian Alps. When the prisoners were too weak to work, Arnim Zola used them as test subjects in his quest to recreate the serum. Bucky Barnes was injected with the serum and survived, although Zola abandoned his work and fled when Rogers stormed the facility, liberating Barnes.
During the first icy months of 1945, Rogers and Barnes led an attack on the HYDRA train that was transporting Zola to another base. During the fight, Barnes fell from the train and fell several hundred feet below. However, due to the serum, Barnes was able to survive the impact, albeit losing his left arm in the process.
Following Steve Rogers' performance in World War II, many nations attempted to create their own super soldiers. During the Cold War, the two superpower nations, the Soviet Union and the United States of America attempted to recreate the serum. Having produced several different versions, the United States Armed Forces used African-American soldiers as test subjects, lying to the men that they were being given tetanus shots. With the U.S. now in possession of a troop of super soldiers, the men were sent on combat missions. During the Korean War, Isaiah Bradley was deployed by his superiors to eliminate Winter Soldier, though both super soldiers survived the encounter.
However, out of all of the different serum versions they had created, only one was sufficiently recreated, which had been solely administered to Bradley. The other test subjects, who had received the imperfect variants, found themselves becoming unstable and dying. No longer able to perform their combat duties adequately, they were quickly captured by enemy forces and placed in a POW camp. Realizing that their unethical experiments on African-American men could come to light, the U.S. Armed Forces decided to destroy the POW camp with an air strike to eliminate the super soldiers and hide the evidence. Wishing to save his friends, Bradley single-handedly infiltrated and liberated the camp, freeing his fellow super soldiers and returning them to their base.
As punishment for his actions, Bradley was imprisoned by his government for thirty years. Additionally, the soldiers whom he had saved quickly died, having succumbed to the side effects of the imperfect serum given to them. During his imprisonment, Bradley's blood, which contained traces of the serum, was constantly extracted by various organizations, including HYDRA and the CIA.
During the later years of the Cold War, the Soviet Union was able to perfectly recreate the serum and administered it to Alexei Shostakov. However, as they were only able to accomplish this feat once, this left Shostakov as the Soviet Union's only super soldier, whom they sent on missions as Red Guardian.
By December 1991, Howard Stark managed to recreate the Super Soldier Serum, prompting HYDRA to send Winter Soldier to assassinate Stark and his wife Maria and retrieve the serum. This serum was injected intravenously without Vita Radiation or a Vita-Ray Chamber, and was used by HYDRA to convert their most elite death squad into Winter Soldiers. The serum granted its user more strength than HYDRA's previous version, as one subject, Josef, was shown to overpower and send Winter Soldier flying during a sparring match.
However, this version of the serum had a mental side effect, giving the Winter Soldiers an increase in aggression and making them uncontrollable. They soon turned on HYDRA and thus were incapacitated and placed in cryostasis. Deeming Stark's serum to be a failure, HYDRA recruited Dr. Wilfred Nagel to recreate the serum. Before Nagel could finish his work, HYDRA had been disbanded.
Two days after the September 11 attacks, General Thaddeus Ross was commissioned to recreate the serum in order to create new super soldiers for the United States Armed Forces. In order to recreate the serum, Doctor Bruce Banner, a renowned scientist specializing in the fields of biochemistry, nuclear physics and gamma radiation, was recruited into the project. However, General Ross chose not to divulge the serum's true properties to Banner, instead informing him that the serum he was tasked to recreate had been designed to prevent radiation poisoning.
Banner chose to substitute the original serum's vita radiation with gamma radiation, believing it held the secret of unlocking the original serum's formula. Unaware that it was a recreated Super Soldier Serum, Banner injected himself with it and was doused with an overabundance of gamma radiation, causing Banner to transform into a large, green-skinned being that soon became known as the "Hulk".
However, a variant of the serum had been recreated and was given to Emil Blonsky through multiple deep tissue and bone marrow injections, transforming Blonsky into a super soldier. However, this version of the serum had several side effects, including both physical and mental deterioration, such as a protruded spine and aggression. After Blonsky was given a transfusion of Hulk's blood, it mixed with the serum in his system and mutated him into the "Abomination". 041b061a72