Noun testləri: İngilis dilində isimlərin konkret və abstrakt olması
Background: Protocols for intraoperative language mapping with direct electrical stimulation (DES) often include various language tasks triggering both nouns and verbs in sentences. Such protocols are not readily available for navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS), where only single word object naming is generally used. Here, we present the development, norming, and standardization of the verb and noun test for peri-operative testing (VAN-POP) that measures language skills more extensively.
Methods: The VAN-POP tests noun and verb retrieval in sentence context. Items are marked and balanced for several linguistic factors known to influence word retrieval. The VAN-POP was administered in English, German, and Dutch under conditions that are used for nTMS and DES paradigms. For each language, 30 speakers were tested.
Protocols for intraoperative language mapping with direct electrical stimulation (DES) often include various language tasks triggering both nouns and verbs in sentences. Such protocols are not readily available for navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS), where only single word object naming is generally used. Here, we present the development, norming, and standardization of the verb and noun test for peri-operative testing (VAN-POP) that measures language skills more extensively.
The VAN-POP tests noun and verb retrieval in sentence context. Items are marked and balanced for several linguistic factors known to influence word retrieval. The VAN-POP was administered in English, German, and Dutch under conditions that are used for nTMS and DES paradigms. For each language, 30 speakers were tested.
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Experimental data from several fields of research have confirmed this claim. Firstly, from stroke research, it is known that a task involving nouns is not sufficient to capture linguistic abilities and discover impairments. Cases have been reported of individuals with relatively good production of nouns, but an impairment in tasks involving verbs and verb inflection [6, 22, 26, 27] as well as the inverse, although the inverse is rarer . These observations support the inclusion of both tasks, since the impairment in one of these word classes may go unnoticed if only one task is being used. Secondly, several language-localization studies have shown that cortical areas that do not fully overlap are responsible for carrying out the tasks, object naming and action naming. Even though a shared peri-sylvian network seems to support both tasks, not one task alone can cover all revealed areas ([10, 27, 44], see [32, 42] for a review). Whereas DES to superior frontal, parietal, and temporal regions was reported to elicit errors in both tasks [3, 25], especially the middle and inferior frontal cortical regions as well as subcortical pathways of the long association white matter demonstrated a selective response to verb tasks [2, 3, 25].
Moreover, for some individuals, no positive language areas at all were found under DES mapping using a noun task, whereas a verb test was much more informative . Hence, the need to include a verb task when administering nTMS and DES language mapping became evident.
So far, two studies have looked into verb tasks in nTMS language mapping [17, 18]. Both concluded that the verb task did not reveal more information than the noun task alone. However, both studies employed a simple action naming task that did not involve any sentence context and, thus, no verb inflection. Consequently, such a task does not trigger the grammatical processes mentioned above that constitute the real contribution of a verb task. Moreover, the previous studies used home-made items for the action naming task that had not been standardized, compared to an extensively pretested object naming task. A paradigm consisting of both object naming and the necessary addition of action naming in sentence context with standardized, pretested items is, therefore, needed.
This paper presents the processes of developing, norming, and standardizing the verb and noun test for peri-operative testing, the VAN-POP. We describe a two-task paradigm for English, German, and Dutch, to be used under both nTMS and DES in a population of different age and backgrounds. For this purpose, an object naming test was designed, as well as two variants of an action naming test, both balanced and controlled for various linguistic factors.
The picture stimuli in the object naming paradigm show black-and-white drawings of everyday objects and animals. Above each picture a lead-in phrase is displayed that introduces the target noun phrase. See Fig. 1 for an example.
The stimuli in the action naming paradigm show black-and-white drawings of a person or animal performing an everyday action, drawn by the same artist as the nouns of the object naming task. Parallel to object naming, every picture displays a lead-in phrase triggering the target verb in sentence context. See Fig. 2 for an example of a picture stimulus with the target sentence in each of the three languages.
From a database of about 400 available black-and-white drawings, around 100 pictures of nouns and 100 pictures of verbs had been selected for each of the three languages to elicit possible one-word answers in these languages. They were programmed in a Power Point presentation and presented via a laptop. The answers of the participants were audio-recorded.
A new test was developed with these items, again completely balanced for relevant variables such as word frequency and age of acquisition. For each item, one or two target labels were specified as correct answers, defined by the answers of the participants. In English, the list consisted of 154 items (80 nouns and 74 verbs), in German 160 items (80 nouns and 80 nouns), and in Dutch 160 items (80 nouns and 80 nouns).
The participants were sitting comfortably, looking at the screen. They were asked to read the lead-in phrase aloud and complete it using the name of the object or action in the picture as quickly as possible. Also, they were instructed to keep the sentence short by completing it with only one word, the noun or the verb. Each task started with two practice items and if the participant made a mistake here, s/he was corrected. The object naming test was always administered first.
The majority of linguistic variables such as word frequency and animacy of the object did not show a correlation to naming accuracy. Solely a low age of acquisition was negatively correlated with a higher naming accuracy in Dutch for both object and action naming. These findings are in line with the aphasiological literature showing that factors such as the age at which a word is learned in childhood (low AoA: [7, 11, 29]) play a role in access and retrieval of verbs and nouns, and more importantly, can be affected differently due to brain damage, also when caused by a tumor. With the VAN-POP, it is possible to identify which factors influence noun and verb retrieval and a proper patient-tailored version of the test can be made that is still balanced for relevant factors.
The VAN-POP protocol, available in English, German, and Dutch, delivers a picture naming paradigm to test retrieval and production of both nouns and verbs in sentence context. The protocol proved to be suitable for peri-operative mapping parameters, such as those for nTMS and DES language mapping. In each language, at least 50 times per test passed the standardization phases and are ready to be used.
Students is a plural noun. NOTE: Mastering (A) is a gerund, i.e. a verb form functioning as a noun. But since (D) is already a noun, it is the better choice. Important (B) is an adjective modifying the noun goal. Younger (C) is an adjective modifying the noun students.
Test, however, is either a noun or a verb. So in your first case, a test engineer uses the noun form, and translates to "one who engineers tests". A testing engineer, however, means "an engineer who is performing a test" or "an engineer who is performing a test on something".
The dictionary is based on the amazing Wiktionary project by wikimedia. I initially started with WordNet, but then realised that it was missing many types of words/lemma (determiners, pronouns, abbreviations, and many more). This caused me to investigate the 1913 edition of Websters Dictionary - which is now in the public domain. However, after a day's work wrangling it into a database I realised that there were far too many errors (especially with the part-of-speech tagging) for it to be viable for Word Type.
The noun test isn't a perfect one. It works, but in English there are many words that function equally well as different parts of speech. Case in point: golf. It can be a noun: I love the game of golf. It can be a verb: I golf every weekend. It can be an adjective: I have a quilted golf bag. It all depends upon context: how the word is being used in the sentence.
In the first level of Fix It, start off gradually. In this case, journey isn't being used. Rather, it's journeyed. And "the journeyed" or "3 journeyeds" won't work. If a student brings up a word that can be a noun but isn't functioning as one, you can do a quick explanation, but don't go too deep. Instead focus on the sentences that are provided. The text is controlled enough at this point that you should have fairly smooth sailing. Over time it does get more sophisticated, but for now keep it as simple as possible.
There are two categories of nouns: abstract and concrete. An abstract noun refers to something that you cannot touch, like imagination or poverty. A concrete noun is something tangible, like a book or a sister.
The idea of using a verb and a noun to describe the appropriate scope for a set of tests has been used by Eduardo Miranda. As he points out, if you find yourself tempted to add testing ideas (e.g., explore the help files in depth) that do not easily fit into your chosen verb and noun (e.g., "book a flight"), that can be a useful red flag; accordingly, you might want to exclude those new test ideas that "don't fit" from the test scenarios in your current scope of tests.