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Methods: Children (N = 1104), aged 3 to 11 years, were identified from a computerized register in a socially and ethnically mixed English general practice population of 13,314. Of these, 1077 children (97.6% recruitment) were interviewed with parents or guardians, and the resultant data were recorded on a survey form.
Results: The lifetime occurrence of atopic eczema was 20% in boys (12% in the past year) and 19% in girls (11% in the past year). Prevalence in the past year was 10% to 14% in boys aged 3 to 11 years but fell in girls from 15% at 3 to 5 years to 8% at 9 to 11 years. Atopic eczema developed in the first 12 months of life in 60% of the children who had the condition, and it developed in the first 6 months of life in three quarters of these children. Ear piercing had been performed in 35% of girls and 3% of boys and was most prevalent in social classes 3, 4, and 5. More than half the girls aged 9 to 11 years had pierced ears. Breast-feeding did not affect the prevalence of atopic eczema.
Conclusion: The lifetime prevalence of atopic eczema was 20% in children aged 3 to 11 years. There was no evidence that ear piercing perpetuated eczema in this age group. Breast-feeding did not protect against the development of atopic eczema.
The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a behavioral assessment tool for the measurement of pain in the preterm and full-term neonate; (2) establish the construct and concurrent validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency of the tool; and (3) examine the relationship between the pain scores and infant characteristics. Thirty-eight infants contributed to the 90 procedures videotaped for the study. The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) was used to score behavioral responses before, during, and after each intrusive procedure. The significant difference in NIPS scores over time indicates that the scale provides a measurement of intensity of infant responses to intrusive procedures. Concurrent validity was established by correlations, ranging from .53 to .84, between NIPS scores at each minute of observation and scores on the Visual Analogue Scale. Interrater reliability was high: Pearson correlations ranged from .92 to .97 across successive minutes of observation. The six component scores of the NIPS had high internal consistency: Cronbach's alphas were .95, .87, and .88 for before, during, and after the procedures, respectively. Although gestational age and five-minute Apgars were positively associated with NIPS scores over time, there was no association between these factors and responsiveness to pain, as measured by change in NIPS scores from before to during the procedure. Results are discussed in terms of the use of the NIPS in clinical trials and its clinical application in a neonatal intensive care unit.
Establishes critieria and rulemaking authority for voter signature verification, specifically creating greater accessibility for those who are unable to sign their name consistently due to a disability, and establishes requirements for contacting voters, keeping records, and reporting when a ballot is rejected.
While this bill does some good, such as expanding the earned income tax credit and expanding the eligibility for the social security tax credit, it conditions removing the sales tax on food upon a constitutional amendment that imperils and lowers the income tax rate from 4.85% to 4.65%, a reduction in revenue that would otherwise go toward education.
Prohibits returning a firearm that has been voluntarily committed for safekeeping to a law enforcement agency if the person is a restricted person or has been arrested for committing a domestic violence offense.
Declares that the state and its political subdivisions will not enforce federal laws that purport to restrict or ban certain firearms, ammunition, or firearms accessories, in violation of the supremacy clause of the United States Constitution.
Requires rental unit owners to clearly and conspicuously disclose all fees, fines, assessments, and other costs; in addition to requiring them to provide notice of rental increase at least 60 days before end of lease.
Requires firearms to be securely stored or rendered inoperable by a locking device and provides that if an at-risk person, restricted person, or a minor gains access to a firearm, the owner may be fined.
Discontinues career service employment for new or promoted state employees in favor of at-will employment, and gives current career service employees the option to switch to at-will employment with a financial incentive.
Requires a school to provide suicide prevention materials and information, including information on firearm safety, to a parent of a child who has threatened suicide or has been involved in an incident of bullying or other abusive behavior.
Requires mineral extraction companies who use the lake to pay royalties and a severance tax to a fund for the lake; forces those companies to minimize evaporation or water use and provide water back into the Great Salt Lake; and authorizes state agencies to take measures when the lake hits certain ecological thresholds.
Prohibits changing information on a birth certificate, including names, one year after birth, and outlines procedures for courts to follow when considering a sex designation change on a birth certificate.
Among other changes to House Rules, restricts the ability of the press to access certain non-public areas they were able to access previously, including the hallways around the House Chamber and areas behind the dais in committee rooms.
Prohibits transgender girls from participating in school sports activities, but if that ban is overturned by a court, then it creates a commission that would set baseline physical characteristics for participating in such sports and determine whether transgender students are eligible to play based on those standards.
Except for the media, allows government entities to charge for the first fifteen minutes of fulfilling government records requests for individuals that have submitted a separate request within the preceding ten days.
Regarding the transferring of title of Utah Lake lands after a environmental restoration project, changes final approval from an administrative division to the Legislature, requiring a vote by lawmakers before approved, and allows for considering additional benefits not originally listed in law.
Requires the installation and use of meters on all secondary water connections by January 1, 2030, except for existing connections within smaller counties, and provides penalties for noncompliance, including holding back funding for water projects. Also creates a grant program using ARPA funding to help install secondary water meters.
Makes it a class B misdemeanor to fail to file a statement of organization of a Political Action Committee (PAC) within seven days after receiving notice from the Elections Office of the requirement to file such a statement.
Requires the state to allow for the use of diacritical marks, including accents, tildes, graves, umlauts, and cedillas, on vital records, such as birth certificates, and for the correction and reissuance of original vital records.
Appropriates $40,000,000 to preserve and enhance the Great Salt Lake watershed by granting money to organizations and individuals that will enance water flows, improve water quality, conserve upstream habitats, and restore wetlands and habitats, among other objectives.
Requires school districts to review information on and adopt plans for harassment- and discrimination-free learning; requires the Utah State Board of Education to provide training on antidiscrimination statutes; and requires USBE and school districts to report data on the demographics of victims of bullying, hazing, cyber-bullying, and retaliation.
Appropriates $5,000,000 to develop the Great Salt Lake Watershed Integrated Water Assessment looking at the current state of water resources in the Great Salt Lake Watershed and long-term trends of water supply, demands, and other factors impacting those water resources.
Restricts the ability of the press to access certain non-public areas they were able to access previously, including the floor and the hallways leading to the Senate Chamber and areas behind the dais in committee rooms.
Establishes minimum standards of police misconduct regarding use of excessive force, warrantless searches and seizures, and biased or discriminatory conduct; requires officers to intervene and report observed police misconduct; and prohibits retaliation against officers that report misconduct.
Creates the Ethnic Studies Commission to study the contributions of Utahns of diverse ethnicities and recommend to the Utah State Board of Education (USBE) how to incorporate ethnic studies into core standards of Utah public schools; requires USBE to incorporate ethnic studies core standards; and requires school districts to adopt ethnic studies instructional materials and curriculum into regular school work for all K-12 students.
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